NHKニュースで学ぶ現代英語 2022年5月より①


・elementary school child/children:小学生
・小学生(他に):grade school, primary school

・satchel:学生かばん [sǽtʃəl]

 made of ~:出来上がったものの素材が原料と変わらない場合
 made from ~:素材が加工されて原形と異なる場合 ex)wine is made from grapes

・synthetic:合成の [sinθétik]

・hit (the) stores:店頭に並ぶ、発売される
  hit (the) shops, hit store shelves

  store:いろいろな種類の商品を売る店(department store, convenience store)
  shop:商品を売る以外のサービスも提供する専門店(barber shop, pet shop)

・start school:学校に上がる、就学する

・recover from ~:~(廃物など)から(有用なものを)取り出す、再生する

フランス マクロン大統領が再選

・win re-election:再選を果たす
・far-right (leaning) / fa-left (leaning) :極右、極左(far=はるか遠く)
・presidential runoff:大統領を決めるための決選投票
  ex) Rival Marine Le Pen had the best showing ever for a far-right candidate in a presidential runoff.

・centrist:中道派 [séntrist]
・garner:(努力して)獲得する [gɑ́rnər] 

  ex) a candidate in the single camp

  ex) A opinion that led people to vote for far-right forces

・take measures against ~:~に対して対策を講じる
  ex) Macron had campaigned on his achievements, including measures taken against the coronavirus pandemic.

  ex) She criticized the government’s handling of surging prices of goods.

・pledge:誓う、誓約する [plédʒ]
・living standard / standard of living:生活水準
  ex) She pledged to take economic measures to raise people’s living standards.

<豆知識:the peopleとpeopleの違い>
・the people:国民、民衆
  ex) government of the people, by the people, for the people(リンカーンの演説)

中国“ゼロコロナ”政策 専門家の論文で波紋

・respiratory:呼吸器系の [réspərətɔ̀ri]
・dynamic zero-COVID policy:中国が提唱している「動態(ダイナミック)ゼロコロナ政策」
  ex) An editorial written by China’s top respiratory expert, who once headed Beijing’s coronavirus response team, is drawing mixed reactions over the so-called dynamic zero-COVID policy.

  ex) Zhong Nanshan co-authored the article that appeared in a science magazine earlier this month.

  ex) It argues that China needs to reopen to normalize socio-economic development and adapt to global trends.

・in the long runは:長い目で見れば、長期的には
  ex) It also says pursuing a zero-COVID approach is not sustainable in the long run.

・took to social media:SNSへ手段を取る → 意見を表明する
・for and against:賛成と反対の
  ex) Many people took to social media to express views for and against the article.

・affiliated with ~:~の系列の、~の傘下の、~に属する
・the Communist Party:(中国)共産党
・stick to ~:~に固執する、~にこだわる、貫く
  ex) Media affiliated with the Communist Party said Zhong had stressed the need to stick to the strategy for now in a lecture two days after the article’s publication.

  ex) Observers say such reports suggest that China’s leadership is trying to contain public opposition to its zero-COVID policy.


・provide A with B:AにBを提供する、与える
・place one’s order by ~:~で注文する
・apply A to B:AをBに応用する、適用する

食品値上げ 7月末までに6100品目

・household budget:世帯の予算 → 家計
  ex) Household budgets in Japan are being squeezed.

・private survey:民間の調査
・price hike:値上げ、価格上昇
  ex) A private survey shows price hikes affecting about 6,100 food and beverage items in the first half of this year.

・more than X:厳密には数字Xは含まず、それを超える値を表す。「X以上」は、厳密にはX and overなどと表すが、more than Xは大まかな意味での「X以上」としても使われる
・by an average of 〇 percent:平均〇%で ※byは増減率や差分を表す
  ex) That’s more than half of the 105 businesses approached. Prices are going up by an average of 11 percent.

・mark up ~:~の価格を上げる
・by 〇 percent on average:平均で〇%で
  ex) About 2,900 items are being marked up by 12 percent on average.

・spike:先が鋭くとがったもの → 急激な上昇
・crude (oil):原油
・packaging cost:包装費用
  ex) The spike in crude oil prices is raising packaging costs.

・raw material:原材料
  ex) That’s compounding the impact of more expensive wheat and raw materials.

・poor harvest:不作
・drive up:(価格を)上昇させる
・season:「風味を加える」→「(人に)経験を積ませる」→ seasonedは「経験を積んだ」という形容詞としても使われる。
ex) seasoned acto:経験豊富な俳優
  ex) A poor harvest for rapeseed used in cooking oil is driving up prices for 1,300 dressings and other seasonings by an average of 9 percent.

・(be) in demand for ~:~への需要がある
  ex) The crop is also in demand for biofuel.