NHKニュースで学ぶ現代英語 2022年6月より③

首都直下地震 東京都が被害想定見直し

<語彙・表現>
・estimate:見積もり、推定(した値)、推計
 ex) New estimates suggest a major earthquake directly under Japan’s capital would kill more than 6,000 people.

・largely/mainly because ~:主に~の理由で
 ※partly because ~:一部には(1つには)~の理由で
・tough:(規則などが)厳格な
・quake:earthquake「地震」と同じ
・quake resistance:耐震(性)
 ex) That’s 3,500 fewer deaths than the last Tokyo Metropolitan Government estimate, largely because of tougher quake resistance measures.

・tremor:震え、揺れ [trémər]
 ex) It says a magnitude 7.3 quake directly beneath central Tokyo would be followed by powerful tremors.

・put A at ~:Aを~と(推定)する
・initial:初めの、当初の
・toll:災害などの犠牲者数、死傷者数
 ex) The panel puts the initial death toll at 6,150 with over 93,000 people injured. The quake will also trigger so-called disaster-related deaths in the following weeks and months.

<豆知識:metropolis>
metropolisは周辺地域の「中心となっている市」全てを表す
 ex) the Sapporo metropolitan government:札幌市(役所)

海保の潜水士 懸垂の連続回数で世界記録

<語彙・表現>
・elite:精鋭 [ilíːt]
・set a mark/record:記録を打ち立てる
・pull-up:懸垂
 ※push-up:腕立て伏せ
 ex) One of Japan’s elite Coast Guard divers has made a muscle-busting entry into the Guinness Book of World Records, after setting a new mark for the most consecutive pull-ups.

・feat:偉業、功績、(優れた)技
 ex) His feat was recognized by Guinness earlier this month.

・in earnest:本格的に、本気で
 ex) He began preparing to set the world record in earnest last September.

エリザベス女王 即位70年

<語彙・表現>
・rejoice:歓喜する、うれしがる、喜ぶ、祝う
・make an appearance:現れる、公の場に出席する、(会合などに)ちょっと顔を出す
・on the throne:王位に就いている(状態)
 ※ascend the throne:王位に就く
・mark:〔特別な出来事を〕記念する、祝賀する
 ex) Crowds rejoiced as Britain’s Queen Elizabeth made an appearance on the last day of a series of events marking her 70 years on the throne.

・take part in ~:~に参加する、加わる
・procession:(儀式などの)行列、列
・festivity:お祝いの催し、行事
 ex) About 10,000 people took part in a huge procession in the British capital on Sunday. Military bands, celebrities, and puppets were all part of the festivities.

・coronation:戴冠式、即位式
 ex) The parade also included the Gold State Coach that took the queen to her coronation.

・monarch:(世襲の)君主
 ex) After the parade, the 96-year-old monarch smiled and waved to the crowds from the balcony of Buckingham Palace.

・boost:景気づける、(人の士気などを)盛り上げる、高める
・a breath of fresh air:(慣用表現)すがすがしい出来事、いい風を運んでくれるもの、気分を一新する新風を吹き込むような人やもの
 ex) “I just think the whole weekend of events will really give the country the boost it needs right now, so I think that this has been a breath of fresh air for everybody.”

・I am humbled.:恐縮する
・take to the streets:(人々が)街に繰り出す、街頭に立つ
 ex) After the event, the queen issued a statement saying she’s been humbled and deeply touched so many people have taken to the streets to celebrate her Platinum Jubilee.

犬や猫にマイクロチップの装着義務

<豆知識:the peopleとpeopleの違い>
・reunite A with B:AをBと再会させる
 ex) Animal sellers in Japan must now microchip dogs and cats to make it easier to reunite lost pets with their owners.

・take in:引き取る、引き受ける
 ex) Local governments take in more than 70,000 abandoned or lost dogs and cats per year.

・pass a law:法律を可決する、法律を通過させる
 ex) Lawmakers passed the law in an effort to drop that count.

・implant A with B:AにBを埋め込む
 ex) It forces pet shops, breeders, and other sellers to implant dogs and cats with microchips containing 15-digit ID numbers.

・breed:品種
 ex) The name of the seller and the animal’s name, gender, breed, and coat color must be registered in a government database.

・urge:要請する、強く促す
・get A+過去分詞の形:Aを~(の状態)にしてもらう
 ex) The government is urging current owners and shelters to get their pets tagged.

・help A+動詞の原形:Aが~するのに役立つ
 ex) The Environment Ministry says the new requirement will help people find lost pets and prevent owners from abandoning them.

<豆知識:数字の言い方が増えるのは000を増やすときだった(と自分で気付いた)>
thousand            1,000
million          1,000,000
billion      1,000,000,000

小惑星“リュウグウ”の砂に生命の材料

<語彙・表現>
・vital:極めて重要な
・breakthrough:大発見、画期的な発見
・make a breakthrough:画期的な発見をする
・in quest to ~:~をすることを探究(調査)する中で
 ex) Scientists have made what’s being called a vital breakthrough in the quest to discover the origins of life.

・space probe:宇宙探査機
・asteroid:小惑星
 ※惑星:planet
 ex) It’s been two years since the Hayabusa2 space probe successfully brought back samples from a distant asteroid called Ryugu.

・probe:探査する、調査する
・astronomical:天文の
・astronomical object:天体
 ex) Japanese researchers probing the rocks and sand taken from the astronomical object say, so far, they’ve found over 20 kinds of amino acids.

・building block:おもちゃの積み木や(建築に使う)ブロック → (物質の)構成要素
・building blocks of life:生命の源(各種の材料となるもの)、生命のもとになる物質
・shortly:すぐに、まもなく
 ex) Considered the “building blocks of life,” amino acids are thought to have existed shortly after our planet was formed.

・organic matter:有機物
・scorch:焼ける、太陽熱で焦がす
 ex) One theory suggests all organic matter was scorched away from the Earth’s surface as it became hotter.

・meteorは大気圏を通過して発光している「流星」
 ※燃え尽きずに地上に落下したものがmeteorite「隕石」、特にまだ大気圏外にあるものはmeteoroid「流星体」で、asteroid「小惑星」よりも小さいものを指す
 ex) It was then re-seeded with amino acids from space by meteors and asteroids.

・astrobiology:宇宙生物学
・credence:信ぴょう性
 ex) NHK spoke to an expert on astrobiology, who says this new discovery adds credence to that theory, because of Ryugu’s distance from the Earth.

<豆知識:地球の"the">
「地球」は、一般的にはthe Earth
theが付くのは、「(我々人類の住む)その地球」というニュアンスを持って使われるから。
ただし、Mars「火星」やVenus「金星」のように惑星の固有名詞として使う場合はEarthと言い、theは付かない。

the earthという小文字の表現もあり、これには「大地」という意味がある。
the heavens and the earth「天と地」のように、天との対比で人間が住んでいる場所というように使われるときもある。

さらに、「地球」はglobe(丸い惑星)で表すこともできる。地球が丸い惑星であることを強調したいときに使う。