NHKニュースで学ぶ現代英語 2022年10月より②

16頭のお父さん パンダの永明が30歳に

・landmark birthday:節目の誕生日 ※下記参照
 ex) For humans, landmark birthdays can bring a mix of emotions.

・panda:=giant panda
 ※giant panda「ジャイアントパンダ」とlesser panda「レッサーパンダ」の2種類がいるが、pandaと言うだけでも、多くの場合はgiant pandaを指す。
・can only be seen as ~:~としてしか見られない(as以下を強調する表現)
 ex) But for a giant panda in Japan, the big 3-0 can only be seen as an amazing achievement.

・in ~ years:~の年齢では
 ex) That’s 90 in human years.

・claim to fame:有名になる(なった)理由(定型フレーズ)
 ex) It doesn’t make Eimei the world’s oldest giant panda, but he does have another claim to fame.

・(動)father ~:~の父親になる
 ex) He is the oldest giant panda to have fathered cubs in captivity the old-fashioned way.

 ex) I am deeply moved and very happy that Eimei turned 30 years old.

・in good health:健康で
 ex) I hope he will continue to live in good health for a long time.

 ※ ex) On her birthday, I’ll get her something special.
・geriatric:高齢者 [dʒèriǽtrik]
 ex) So what do you get a geriatric panda who’s become a dad 16 times over?

・festive:お祝い気分の、お祝いにふさわしい、お祭り気分の [féstiv]
 ex) Instead of a birthday cake, how about some festive ice blocks?

・get on (in years):高齢になる、年をとる(定型フレーズ)
・quite the ~:なかなかの~
 ex) Zookeepers in Wakayama say Eimei may be getting on in years, but he still has quite the appetite.

“〇〇 birthday"
・landmark birthday:節目の誕生日(切りの良い年齢や、成人になる節目の年齢など)
・milestone birthday:何かができるようになった節目となる誕生日

the big+数字(一般的には0がつく数字)
・the big 30:大きな節目の30(歳の誕生日)、30歳という大台、大事な30(歳の誕生日)など
 ※bigは、記念日や結婚式の日などの「大事な日」を指して “big day" のように言うことがある。

「ザ・ビーチ」のロケ地 タイ政府に復元命令

・local authorities:地元当局、地方自治体(通例は複数形)
・file a lawsuit against ~:~に対して訴えを起こす、~を提訴する
 ex) Local authorities filed a lawsuit in 1999 against the government, 20th Century Fox, and a Thai film coordinator.

・rip out:引き抜く、むしり取る(rip「引き裂く」かのように乱暴に取り出す)
 ex) Imported palm trees had been planted and vegetation had been ripped out.

・keep A in ~ condition:Aを~の状態に保つ
 ex) 20th Century Fox has said it kept the beach in its original condition and removed a large amount of garbage.

 ex) In a ruling on Tuesday, it ordered the government to repair the damage that had been done.

 ex) 20th Century Fox must also pay 10 million baht, or about 273,000 dollars, in restoration costs.

 名詞:前  動詞:後ろ
 ex) import, export, increase, decrease, present, record, research, conduct,(行い/(実験などを)行う), combat, estimate、object、permit、protest、survey、suspectなど



 ex) A group of Japanese researchers is receiving some unusual recognition for one of their projects.

 ex) They won an Ig Nobel Prize on Thursday, an award for trivial achievements in scientific research.

 ex) Professor Matsuzaki Gen is part of a team at the Chiba Institute of Technology near Tokyo.

 ex) They published research examining how many fingers people use when turning knobs of various sizes.

・plastic bottle:ペットボトル
 ※一般的に樹脂製のものはplasticと総称され、例えばスーパーやコンビニの「レジ袋」ならplastic bag
 ex) They used 45 knobs, including the cap of a plastic bottle and one for controlling volume.

 ex) Their conclusion: People decide the number of fingers they use depending on the size of the knob.

・take up the challenge of ~:~という難題に立ち向かう
 ex) The study is being recognized for taking up the challenge of exploring “the efficient way to turn a knob.”

・(be) honored to/by ~:~して光栄です
 ex) “I’m very honored to receive this wonderful award. In the field of design, there are many researchers studying such unconscious human behavior.”

ロシア ウクライナ4州を“併合”

 ex) Western leaders say they’re seeing “the most serious escalation” since the war in Ukraine began.

・gather with ~:~とともに集まる
 ex) Putin gathered with thousands of people to celebrate the annexation of Donetsk, Kherson, Luhansk, and Zaporizhzhia.

・turn out for ~:~に参加する、~のために出かける、集まる
・referendum:住民投票 [rèfəréndəm]
・make a choice:選択する
 ex) “People turned out for the referendums and made this choice to be with their historic homeland, with Russia.”

 ex) He says Russian troops will defend those territories by all forces and means.

 ex) Ukraine’s president called the takeover a criminal act.

tens of ~ / dozens of ~:何十人もの~
hundreds of ~:何百人もの~
thousands of ~:何千もの~
tens of thousands of ~:何万もの~

<豆知識:"historic" と “historical" の違い>
historic event:歴史上有名な事件、出来事
 ex) The fall of the Berlin Wall was a truly historic event. 「ベルリンの壁の崩壊は本当に歴史に残る出来事だった。」

historical event:歴史上の事件、出来事
 ex) Film directors have to be careful about accuracy when they depict historical events. 「歴史上の出来事を描くとき、映画監督は正確さに注意しなければならない。」

 ex) I can’t wait to see all the historic/historical landmarks in Rome.

食品メーカー 価格抑制にあの手この手

・easy on ~:~にやさしい
 ※easy on stomach:胃にやさしい easy on wallet:財布にやさしい
・household budget:家計
 ex) The major milling firm says the smaller portions are easier on household budgets and help reduce waste.

 ex) Company president Koike Yuji says consumers are not only becoming thriftier, but their needs are growing more diverse.

・raw material:原材料
 ex) He says Nisshin Seifun Welna faces the added challenge of keeping its production costs low amid rising raw material prices.

 ex) This product allows it to be cooked in a pan with about three tablespoons of oil.

 ex) The firm hopes to help ease the impact of rising prices of cooking oil on household budgets.

<豆知識:いろいろな “fry">
・shallow-fry:少量の油で揚げる、揚げ焼きにする ※shallow:浅い

<豆知識:"respond" の “spond" 部分>
“spond" は「約束する」という意味なので、

・respond:約束し戻す → 応答する
 ex) Brian responded right away to our wedding invitation. 「返事をした(応答した)」
・correspond:共に応じ合う → 一致する
sponsor:約束する人 → 保証人、スポンサー