NHKニュースで学ぶ現代英語 2022年12月より③

冬の風物詩 カピバラの露天風呂

・make a splash:水しぶきを上げる、注目を集める、(ニュースや話題などが)目立つ

 ex) As the weather gets colder here in Japan, many people like to go to a hot spring to warm up.

 ex) But humans aren’t the only ones enjoying a soak.

 ex) The custom began when keepers spotted some relaxing in a puddle of hot water that was meant to be used to clean their enclosure.

・native to ~:~を原産とする、~原産の
 ex) The animal is the world’s largest rodent, and native to tropical regions of South America.

・sometimes …, but (at) other times, …:時には~、しかし別の時には~(対比を表す形)
 ex) Keepers say sometimes all the capybaras share the bath, but at other times, just one of them enjoys a solitary soak.

<豆知識:動詞での “weather" の様々な表現>
・weather a storm:嵐を乗り越える、苦難を乗り越える
・weather through ~:~を乗り切る
 ex) weather through tough times:厳しい時期を乗り切る

・hot bath:温水風呂
・cold bath:冷水風呂

 ex) Ten babies were born this year between August and October.

 ex) “They are so cute.” → “You want to take a bath with them, don’t you?”
  ↑"don’t" が高く “you" を下げる


 ※英語圏では「警察犬」のことを “K9" と呼ぶことがある。これは “canine" と発音が同じため。

 ※BSE:bovine spongiform encephalopathy「牛海綿状脳症」の頭文字を取った言葉

 ※鳥インフルエンザ:avian flu

新型コロナの国産飲み薬 供給開始

・look to ~:~に頼る、当てにする、~に目や関心を向ける、注目する、期待する
 ex) Health workers in Japan are looking to new tools to fight COVID-19 as the country faces an eighth wave of infections.

・prescribe:(薬などを)処方する ※下記参照
・low-risk patient:感染しても重症化するリスクが低い患者
 ex) Doctors have started prescribing an oral drug available for low-risk patients.

・give approval of ~:~を承認する
 ex) The Japanese government gave emergency approval of Xocova last week.

・pharmaceutical:調剤の、製薬の、薬剤の [fɑ̀rməsúːtikəl]
 ex) The first domestically developed oral drug is made by pharmaceutical firm Shionogi.

・hit hard:大きな打撃・衝撃を与える → 重症化する
 ex) Doctors say it’s difficult to predict who COVID will hit hard.

・provide A with B:AにBを供給する
 ex) The government plans to provide hospitals across the nation with enough doses for one million patients.

・antigen:抗原(体内で抗体を作り免疫を獲得するのを促す物質) [ǽntidʒən]
 ※anti(対抗する) + gen(発生させるもの)
simultaneously:〔複数の事柄の発生・存在などが〕同時に [sàiməltéiniəsli]
 ex) Health officials approved on Monday public sales of antigen test kits that can simultaneously check for the coronavirus and seasonal influenza.

<豆知識:「書く」"script" “scription" を含む語彙>
・postscript(手紙やメールの最後の “p.s."):post「後に」script「書いたもの」→「追記」

久保田徹さん ミャンマーの人権状況を証言

・speak to reporters:記者団に話す、記者会見する
 ex) A Japanese journalist freed from prison in Myanmar earlier this month has spoken to reporters here in Tokyo.

・call for ~:~を呼び求める、~を要求する、~を訴える
 ex) Kubota Toru called for more awareness about the human rights situation in the country and urged the ruling military to improve it.

・refer to ~:~に言及する、~を参照する
 ※coup d’état「国家への一撃」から
 ex) Kubota referred to a report by a human rights group that says more than 16,000 people have been detained in Myanmar since the coup in February last year.

・speak out:声を上げる、意見を堂々と述べる」
 ex) I’m just one of the 16,000. I believe I’m entrusted to articulate the thoughts of people who are not allowed to speak out.

・security authorities:治安当局
・junta:臨時政府、軍事政権(スペイン語由来) [húntə]
・on a tourist visa:観光ビザで
 ex) In July, Kubota was held by security authorities in Yangon for filming protests against the junta while on a tourist visa.

・on a charge (of) ~:~の罪で
 ex) He had been facing a total of 10 years in prison on charges including violating the immigration law.

・along with ~:~と一緒に、~と共に
 ex) Kubota said he was detained in a small cell with one toilet along with more than 20 other people.

<豆知識:"earlier this month" の時期>
earlier this month:今月の今(ここではこのニュースの時点)よりも早いとき
early this month:今月初め

クロマグロ 東大西洋と地中海の漁獲枠拡大

・bluefin tuna:クロマグロ [(米)túːnə/(英)tjúːnə]
 ※ex. bigeye tuna「メバチ」、southern bluefin tuna「ミナミマグロ」
・catch quota:漁獲枠
・fishing groundは「漁場
 ex) A recovery in bluefin tuna stocks has prompted conservation officials to raise their catch quota in the main fishing grounds of the Eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean.

・the highest on record:過去最高
 ex) The new limit will be the highest on record.

・a record low:過去最低レベル(値)
 ex) It fell to a record low of 12,900 tons in 2011 and 2012.

・in effect:有効になる、実施されて、発効されて
・for a three-year period from 2023:2023年から3年の期間(=2025年いっぱいまで)
 ※ = for three years from 2023
 ex) The new quota will be in effect for a three-year period from 2023.

・up by ~:~増加して
 ex) Japan’s annual allocation will be 3,114 tons, up by about 300 tons.

・at home:国内で
 ex) It’s the largest amount ever for the country and is expected to lead to lower prices at home.

“It fell to a record low of 12,900 tons in 2011 and 2012. The new quota will be in effect for a three-year period from 2023."

2011と2012:two thousand eleven and two thousand twelve
2023:twenty twenty-three

EU ロシア産原油の価格に上限適用

・choke off ~:~を窒息させる、(行動・計画などを)妨げる
 ex) Western leaders have used sanctions to choke off Russian revenues.

・add to ~:~を加える、~に上乗せする、~を増加させる
・a cap on ~:~に対する上限
 ex) Now, they’ve added to those penalties with a cap on the price of Russian oil.

・the Group of Seven nations:G7
・cap ~:~に上限を設ける
・Russian crude:ロシア産原油
 ※crude oil「原油」のことで、石油の話をしているのが明らかなのでoilが省略されている。
 ex) Leaders in the European Union, the Group of Seven nations, and Australia are capping Russian crude at 60 dollars a barrel.

・destabilizing:不安定にする [diːstéibəlàiziŋ]
 ex) Dmitry Peskov warned the potential of destabilizing energy markets is “obvious and indisputable.”

・take advantage of ~:~を巧みに(うまく)利用する [ədvǽntidʒ]
・at a discount:割引価格で [dískaunt]
 ex) Officials in China and India have taken advantage of the war by buying Russian oil at a discount.

・come under pressure from ~:~からの圧力を受ける
・cut back:減らす、削減する
 ex) But they’ve come under pressure from Western leaders to cut back.

・prioritize ~:~を優先する [praiɔ́tàiz]
 ex) India’s foreign minister Subrahmanyam Jaishankar says Indians will prioritize their own energy needs.