NHKニュースで学ぶ現代英語 2023年1月より②

インド 大統領に先住民族出身のムルム氏

 ex) Lawmakers in India have elected the country’s first president from one of its tribal communities.

・state lawmakers:州議会の
 ex) About 4,800 federal and state lawmakers voted.

・opposition party:野党
 ex) Election officials declared on Thursday that Droupadi Murmu won the election by defeating a candidate fielded by opposition parties.

indigenous:先住の、先住民の [indídʒənəs] ※下記参照
・indigenous tribe:先住民族
 ex) She is from an indigenous tribe in the state of Odisha.

・general election:総選挙
 ex) The ruling party backed Murmu apparently to gain support from female voters and tribal communities in the eastern regions ahead of the general election in 2024.

 ex) The presidency in India is largely a ceremonial role.

<豆知識:"native" の代わりに “indigenous" が使われる>
 ex) The kangaroo is indigenous to Australia. 「カンガルーはオーストラリア固有の生き物です」


※このような、社会の特定の人々に不快感や不利益を与えないように配慮された言葉や対策などを “political correctness"「政治的な正しさ」「ポリコレ」という。

国連 “ウイグルで深刻な人権侵害”

・Uyghur:ウイグル族(の)、ウイグル語(の) [uj.ˈɡur]
・Muslim:イスラム教(徒)の、ムスリム人の [mʌ́zlim]
・constitute ~:~であるとみなされる
・Xinjiang:新疆 [ˈʃɪnˈdʒjæŋ]
・autonomous:自立的な、自律的な [ɔtɑ́nəməs]
・the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region:新疆ウイグル自治区
 ex) The UN Human Rights Office says China’s treatment of Uyghurs and other Muslim minorities may constitute crimes against humanity in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region.

・call on ~:~に求める、要請する
 ex) The long-awaited report calls on Beijing to release detained Uyghurs.

 ex) The Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights examined the situation in the region and released the report on Wednesday.

commit:(罪や悪事を)犯す [kəmít]
 ex) It said serious human rights violations have been committed there.

・extremism:過激主義 [ikstríːmìzəm]
 ex) It said they happened under China’s policies to fight terrorism and extremism.

 ex) The report also cites “patterns of torture” inside what Beijing had called vocational training centers.

allegation:(必ずしも立証されていない)主張、申し立て、供述 [æ̀ləgéiʃən]
 ex) It says allegations of cruel treatment at the facilities appear to be credible.

・arbitrarily:恣意的に、(合理的な基準がなく)独断的な判断で拘束された [ɑ́ːrbətreri]
 ex) It calls on China to release anyone who was arbitrarily detained.

・smear:(油などで)汚す → 中傷する、(評判や名誉などを)汚す [smíər]
 ex) Chinese officials claim the report is part of a campaign to smear China’s reputation.

アフリカ開発会議 チュニス宣言採択

・wrap up:(会議などを)終える、(交渉などを)まとめる
 ※「無事に、成功裏に」といったニュアンスが含まれる。また、close / conclude / end とほぼ同じだが、これらが単に会議を「閉める、終わらせる」に対しwrap upは「(議長などが)会議の内容を取りまとめて締めくくる」というニュアンスがある。
promote ~:~を促進させる、助長させる
 ex) Leaders from Japan and African countries have wrapped up a conference on the continent’s development. TICAD aims to promote private sector connections.

・~ Declaration:~(場所)宣言
・private company:民間企業、(株式を公開していない)私企業、個人企業
・be key to ~:~にとって重要である
・inclusive growth:包括的な成長
 ex) The Tunis Declaration says private companies and startups are key to sustainable and inclusive growth.

 ex) Stakeholders say this strategy helps provide opportunities for women and young people.

・cash infusion:資金注入
 ex) The conference is also a response to Chinese cash infusions, which experts call a debt trap.

・chair ~:~の議長を務める
 ex) Tunisia hosted and co-chaired the conference.

・make use of ~:~を利用する、使用する、活用する
・abundant:豊富な、(有り余るほど)豊かな [əbʌ́ndənt]
 ※"abandon"「見捨てる、中断する」は [əbǽndən]
 ex) President Kais Saied said African countries will keep working with global partners to make use of the continent’s abundant human and natural resources.

OPECプラス 大幅減産へ

 ex) Consumers in the U.S. and Europe expect energy bills this winter that are already making them shiver.

・put pressure on A to ~:Aに~するよう圧力をかける
・bring down:〔値段を〕下げさせる
 ex) They’ve put pressure on leaders to do something to bring prices down.

 ex) The world’s major oil producers have ignored pleas to increase supplies and have instead cut them sharply.

・push ~ back up:~を押し戻す
 ex) They want to push them back up.

・cut in production:生産減産
 ex) They agreed to their biggest cuts in production in more than two years: two million barrels a day.

・preemptive:先手を取る、機先を制して [priːém(p)tɪv]
 ※pre「前に」 + empt「買う」
 ex) They say they want to be proactive and preemptive about the uncertainty in the global economy.

・persuade A to ~:~するようAを説得する
 ex) U.S. President Joe Biden has tried to persuade producers to keep production high.

・pay a visit to ~:~を訪問する
 ※de-facto (de facto) government:事実上の政府、de-facto wife / de-facto husband:事実婚の相手、同棲している相手

・the cartel:そのカルテル(OPEC、あるいはOPECプラスのこと)
 ex) He even paid a visit to the de-facto leaders of the cartel in Saudi Arabia.

 ex) White House officials pointed to the pressures on energy prices of Russia’s invasion of Ukraine and called the cuts “shortsighted.”


・per se:それ自体、本質的に
・per capita:1人当たりの
・ad hoc:特にそのための(に)、その場限りの(で)
・inter alia:とりわけ

ノーベル平和賞 反ロシアの人権運動へ

・Belarus:ベラルーシ [bìːlərúːs]
 ex) Human rights advocates from Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine have won this year’s Nobel Peace Prize.

amid ~:~の最中に
 ex) It comes amid ongoing fighting in the region.

・laureate:受賞者、名誉を受けた人 [lɔ́riit]
 ex) The laureates are jailed Belarussian activist Ales Bialiatski, Russian organization Memorial, and Ukraine’s Center for Civil Liberties.

 ex) They have for many years promoted the right to criticize power and protect the fundamental rights of citizens.

・abuse:乱用、悪用 [(動)əbjúːz (名)əbjúːs]
 ※名詞 abuse の “s" を濁る音で発音する人もいるが、本来は濁らない発音(アビュース)
・human rights abuses:人権侵害
 ex) They have made an outstanding effort to document war crimes, human rights abuses, and the abuse of power.

 ex) The committee called the winners champions of civil liberties who promote peace among neighbors.

・autocracy:専制政治、独裁政治 [ɔtɑ́krəsi]
 ex) Their selection was also a statement against autocracy.

動詞:"z" / 名詞:"s" になる単語の例