NHKニュースで学ぶ現代英語 2023年2月より①

食品ロス削減へ 取り組み広がる

・edible:(安全に)食べられる、食用の [édəbl]
 ex) More businesses in Japan are introducing technology and services to reduce the amount of edible food that is wasted.

・substandard:基準の下 → 標準や基準を満たしていない、規格外の
 ex) Major food delivery company Oisix Ra Daichi has started processing substandard vegetables and other foodstuffs at a facility near Tokyo.

・proprietary:(製品や技術などが)専売の、自社独自の、所有権のある [prəpráiətèri] ※豆知識参照
 ex) Those parts close to the peel or stalk are turned into ready-to-eat ingredients using the firm’s proprietary technologies for heating or freezing them.

・take part:参加する
 ※~に参加する:take part in ~
 ex) Eateries at 18 department stores are taking part.

・food waste:食品廃棄物(まだ食べられるのに廃棄されている食品、いわゆる「食品ロス」)
 ex) Food waste is a major social problem in Japan.

property:自分だけが所有しているもの →財産

appropriate:「(何かを取って)自分のproperty(財産)にする」→ 他人のものを「勝手に使う、着服する」

米下院議長選 投票15回目で決着

・the U.S. House of Representatives:アメリカ議会の下院
 ※the Houseと略される。
 ex) The historic standoff in the U.S. House of Representatives has come to an end.

 ex) House Republican leader Kevin McCarthy has been elected speaker after 15 rounds of votes.

・for a majority:過半数の
 ex) McCarthy won 216 votes for a majority on Saturday.

 ex) He had struggled to gain support from 20 hardline conservatives within his party for four days.

 ex) As speaker of the House, my ultimate responsibility is not to my party, my conference, or even our Congress.

・get off to a good (bad) start:「(物事などの)出だしが良い(悪い)」という表現
 ex) The result shows Republicans are getting off to a shaky start after regaining control of the House.


・Interpol:インターポール(国際刑事警察機構)(International Criminal Police Organization)
・crack down on ~:~を(厳しく)取り締まる
・trade in ~:~の取引
・endangered:〔動物・植物の種が〕危険にさらされた、絶滅寸前の [indéindʒərd]
 ex) Interpol has been cracking down on the illegal trade in endangered wildlife and timber around the world.

・seize:押収する、没収する [síːz]
 ex) During a month-long operation, the global police agency says thousands of items were seized.

・cooperate in a fight against ~:~との戦いで協力する
 ※human trafficking:人身取り引き、人身売買
 ex) Interpol and the World Customs Organization spent most of October cooperating with relevant authorities in 125 countries in a fight against trafficking networks.

 ex) More than 930 suspects were identified during the operation, code-named “Thunder 2022.”

・seizure:押収 [síːʒər]
・tortoise:陸上に生息するカメ [tɔ́rtəs]
・(be) found hidden in ~:~に隠されているのが発見される
 ex) Searches at an airport in Thailand resulted in the seizure of 81 tortoises found hidden in snack bags inside a passenger’s luggage.

・reptile:は虫類 [réptàil]
・cardboard box:段ボール箱
 ex) At an airport in India, about 1,200 reptiles were found in cardboard boxes imported from Malaysia.

・be on alert for ~:~を警戒する
 ex) Authorities are on alert for a possible increase in smuggling due to the easing of COVID-19 border controls.

・package, parcel:郵送・宅配される「小包」

・freight:「積荷全般」といったニュアンス [fréit]



※「貨物列車」をアメリカ英語ではfreight trainといい、イギリス英語ではgoods trainと言う。

違いに神経質にならず、むしろ違いを楽しんで見つけていきましょう(by 明日香先生)。

“団塊の世代” 7割が後期高齢者に

・(be) set to ~:~することになっている(確実性の高い未来や予定など)
 ex) In Japan, more than 2 million people are set to turn 75 this year.

・baby boom:ベビーブーム
 ※戦争などのあとに出生率が一時的に上昇する現象で、baby boomerはその時代に生まれた人を指す。
・“late elderly”:後期高齢者
・nursing care:介護、看護
 ex) Most members of the so-called baby boomer generation will be categorized as “late elderly,” and the question for the government is how to pay for their nursing care.

・define A as B:AをBと定義する
 ex) Japan defines “baby boomer” as anyone born between 1947 and 1949.

 ※PTSD(post-traumatic stress disorder)「心的外傷後ストレス障害」、postmortem「事後分析」
 ex) That’s when the population surged as people started families in the postwar years.

・the internal affairs ministry:総務省(正式にはMinistry of Internal Affairs and Communications)
 ex) The internal affairs ministry says nearly 70 percent of them will turn 75 or older this year.

・a fifth:5分の1 ※豆知識参照
 ex) And by 2025, a fifth of the population will be at least that age.

・the welfare ministry :厚生労働省(正式にはMinistry of Health, Labour and Welfare)
・look at ~:~を調べる、~を検討する
・nursing care system:介護制度
 ex) Officials at the welfare ministry are looking at how to deal with that strain on the nursing care system.

 ex) They’re reviewing how much of the costs should be shouldered by the elderly.

「~歳以上」 その年齢は含まれる
・年齢 or older
・年齢 or higher
・年齢 or more
・年齢 or above

「~歳以下」 その年齢は含まれる
・年齢 or lower
・年齢 or less
・年齢 or under

「~歳より上」 その年齢は含まれない
・"older than 年齢"

・a fifth:5分の1

<豆知識:"shoulder" を使った表現>
a shoulder to cry on:悩みを聞いてくれる人

a chip on one’s shoulde:けんか腰、挑戦的な態度、(文脈によって)何があっても苦境をはね返すこと
 ex) He is a man with a chip on his shoulder.

・head and shoulders above:頭と肩の分だけ上にあって → ずばぬけて
 ex) Jenny stands head and shoulders above the rest of her class.

ブラジル 議会侵入の前大統領支持者を排除

・gain access to ~:近づいて~を利用する → (なんとか)~に入る、到達する
 ex) The crowd breached security barricades Sunday and gained access to the congressional building in Brasilia.

・be involved in ~:~に関わる、~に参加する
 ex) Brazilian media reports say about 4,000 people were involved in the invasion and about 300 have been arrested.

・by a slim margin:僅差で
 ※大差で:by a wide margin
・take office:就任する、政権に就く
 ex) In October, Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva won a presidential runoff by a slim margin and took office on January 1.

・stage a protest:抗議行動・デモを行う
 ex) Some of Bolsonaro’s supporters have refused to accept Lula’s victory and have staged protests around federal buildings.